1. A 69-year-old retired fisherman with controlled hypertension complains of gradual impairment of vision. His history further reveals that he was recently diagnosed with mild adult-onset diabetes that is also well controlled. He is a retired fisherman. The most likely cause of his visual impairment is:
C) Diabetic retinopathy
D) Macular degeneration
Correct Answer B. Cataract
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Most cataracts are related to aging. Cataracts are very common in older people. By age 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. A cataract can occur in either or both eyes. It cannot spread from one eye to the other. Cataract is the main cause of visual loss globally and is the most common eye problem associated with age. It can be treated surgically. Risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and corticosteroid therapy.
Researchers suspect that there are several causes of cataract, such as smoking and diabetes. Or, it may be that the protein in the lens just changes from the wear and tear it takes over the years.
Click here for more board review questions?